Uveitis describes inflammation of the vascular layers within the eye. Uveitis can be divided into 3 categories:
- Anterior uveitis (also termed iridocyclitis) refers to inflammation of the vessels in the front most chamber of the eye
- Posterior uveitis (also termed choroiditis) refers to inflammation of the vessels of the back chamber of the eye
- Panuveitis refers to inflammation of all of the structures associated with all of the vascular layers of the eye
Patients with uveitis present with “red eyes”, light sensitivity, and squinting. Diagnosis of uveitis is made with a thorough ophthalmic exam, including intraocular pressure checks and staining the cornea to check for ulcerations. Uveitis is always a symptom of an underlying disease process, such as: corneal ulceration; infections, such as, Leptospirosis, Blastomycosis, and tick borne diseases; feline retroviral infections; immune mediate diseases; cancer; and trauma. Therefore, patients with uveitis may need further diagnostic testing (e.g.: blood work, imaging, and titers for infectious diseases) done for a complete diagnosis. Treatment for uveitis must address the inflammation and pain in the eye as well as specific treatment for the underlying condition.